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Motor Abilities and the Motor Profile in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

Mayall, Leighanne A., D’Souza, Hana, Hill, Elisabeth L., Karmiloff-Smith, Annette, Tolmie, Andrew and Farran, Emily (2020) Motor Abilities and the Motor Profile in Individuals with Williams Syndrome Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

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Objectives: Motor difficulties are present across a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, impacting on the development of other domains and on overall quality of life. One population that shows difficulties with their motor abilities is composed of individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). The purposes of the current study were to investigate the motor profile of individuals with WS and to investigate the relationships between physical activity and motor performance in this group. Methods: The motor performance of 36 individuals with WS was measured using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT2-SF) short form. Physical activity was also measured using our novel questionnaire. Performance on both measures was compared with that of typically developing (TD) children aged 4 to 7 years (N = 40). Results: Results indicate that the individuals with WS (aged 12 to 50 years) performed at the level of TD 4- to 5-year olds with respect to overall motor ability. On examination of the motor profile, a relative strength in upper limb control and a relative weakness in balance were identified for this group. While a correlation was found between motor ability and the amount of physical activity that participants engaged in on a weekly basis in the TD group, no such relationship was found in the WS group. Conclusions: The motor problems that individuals with WS show in childhood persist into older childhood and adulthood, and akin to the WS cognitive profile, there are relative strengths and weaknesses in the WS motor profile. The lack of correlation between physical activity and motor ability in the WS group may be due to the lack of opportunity to access age- and ability-appropriate activities.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Psychology
Authors :
Mayall, Leighanne A.
D’Souza, Hana
Hill, Elisabeth L.
Karmiloff-Smith, Annette
Tolmie, Andrew
Date : 8 July 2020
Funders : ESRC PhD studentship, The Waterloo Foundation
DOI : 10.1007/s41252-020-00173-8
Grant Title : The Waterloo Foundation
Copyright Disclaimer : #The Author(s) 2020 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Uncontrolled Keywords : Williams syndrome; Motor; Physical activity; Neurodevelopmental disorders; Learning difficulties
Additional Information : Embargo OK Metadata OK No Further Action
Depositing User : James Marshall
Date Deposited : 16 Jul 2020 12:51
Last Modified : 16 Jul 2020 12:57

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